American College Of Surgeons - Inspiring Quality: Highest Standards, Better Outcomes

RISE Archives

Work-Life Integration: Being Whole at Work and at Home
(Posted June 2018)
Heather J. Logghe, MD; Sara Scarlet, MD; Christian D. Jones, MD, MS; and Rajesh Aggarwal, MD, PhD

This article is intended for surgeons and surgical trainees, but has broad applicability to anyone with an affiliation to health care, with particular relevance to those who train residents and/or hold leadership positions. After reading the article, surgeons will be able to:

  • Define work-life integration and why it is preferable to work-life balance
  • Describe the impact of technology and culture change on work-life integration
  • Describe the role of social media, leadership and role modeling, and inclusive definitions of family in promoting healthy work-life integration

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Continuum or Chasm: Using Assessment Strategies to Bridge the UME and GME Divide
(Posted May 2018)
Kimberly Brown, MD, FACS, and Emil Petrusa, PhD

This article is intended for clerkship directors, leaders in Undergraduate Medical Education (UME), and residency program directors who are interested in the current state and evolving innovations in assessing clinical skills of trainees during the transition between medical school and residency. This article seeks to:

  • Describe Entrustable Program Activities (EPAs) as the emerging framework for longitudinal clinical skills training and assessment across the continuum of UME and Graduate Medical Education (GME)
  • Review workplace-based assessments in general as a key clinical skills assessment methodology
  • Summarize other existing and emerging strategies for assessing skills across the UME to GME continuum

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Surgical Coaching
(Posted April 2018)
Kara Vande Walle, MD, and Caprice Greenberg, MD, MPH, FACS

This article is intended for those interested in learning more about how surgical coaching and peer coaching can improve a surgeon’s performance and how to develop a surgical coaching program. The objectives are to:

  • Describe the innovation of surgical coaching for professional development
  • Discuss the use of expert and peer coaching for medical students, surgical trainees, and practicing surgeons
  • Offer guidance on the creation of a surgical coaching program

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The Flipped Classroom: Abandon the Sage on the Stage, and Embrace the Guide on the Side
(Posted February 2018)
Catherine E. Lewis, MD, MEd

This article is intended for educators interested in creating a more active and student-centered learning environment. The objectives are to:

  • Appreciate the limitations of passive traditional lectures and describe the benefits of active learning
  • Understand the flipped classroom methodology and how it facilitates adult, constructivist-inspired, active learning
  • Become familiar with some of the current literature supporting the flipped classroom’s use in medical education
  • Recognize key factors and resources available for successful implementation of a flipped classroom

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The Various Roles of Simulation throughout the Surgeon Lifecycle
(Posted January 2018)
Jennifer Perone, MD; Nicholas E. Anton, MS; and Aimee K. Gardner, PhD

The article is intended for those interested in learning more about the various uses of simulation for training and assessment throughout a surgeon’s career. This information may be of particular interest to simulation educators and researchers. The objectives are to:

  • Describe the various purposes of simulation for surgeon assessment and training
  • Provide resources and examples of how simulation has been used within each phase of a surgeon’s career
  • Discuss how simulation can is also used for surgeons in practice

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Pushing the Edges of the Box: Creating Focused Training within a General Surgery Residency
(Posted November 2017)
Kyla Terhune, MD, MBA, FACS, and John Mellinger, MD, FACS

This article is intended for program directors in surgery interested in knowing the available options to focus the terminal training of residents. It will help the reader understand the following:

  • Both the ACGME and ABS allow significant latitude for program directors to individualize rotations for residents, even without a specific application for flexibility.
  • When a specific flexibility application is needed.
  • The advantages to trainees, faculty, programs, and patients of individualizing rotations and setting trainees up to be “practice ready.

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The Language of Progressive Autonomy: Using the Zwisch Scale for More Than Just Assessment
(Posted October 2017)
Brian C. George MD, MAEd

This article is intended for those interested in learning more about a framework for teaching faculty how to grant more autonomy to residents. This may be of particular interest to program directors and surgical educators whose primary academic appointment relates to education. The objectives are to:

  • Describe a framework that allows faculty to grant increased levels of autonomy to residents in the operating room
  • Discuss the four levels of the Zwisch scale and the amount of guidance provided by faculty during each level
  • Specify how the Zwisch scale can be used in each of the three phases of the Briefing, Intraoperative Teaching and Debriefing (BID) Model

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Burnout in Surgery
(Posted August 2017)
Jacob Moalem, MD, FACS

This article is intended for surgeons and surgical trainees, and has broad applicability to anyone with an affiliation to medicine, with particular relevance to anyone who holds leadership or administrative responsibilities. The objectives are to:

  • Define burnout and outline risk factors and prevalence
  • Describe the impact and consequences of burnout
  • Suggest ways of preventing or mitigating its adverse effects

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Improving Autonomy in General Surgery Resident Training
(Posted July 2017)
Jason W. Kempenich, MD, FACS; and Paul J. Schenarts, MD, FACS

This article is for anyone with a stake in general surgery resident education including faculty, residents, policymakers, patients, and the general public. The objectives are to:

  • Understand the parties with a stake in general surgery resident education and the cooperation required to improve the quality of graduates
  • Understand the barriers to resident autonomy in general surgery education and the potential for solution

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Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) and Applications to Surgical Training
(Posted June 2017)
Brenessa Lindeman, MD, MEHP; Emil Petrusa, PhD; and Roy Phitayakorn, MD, FACS, MHPE

This synopsis covers Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) and their relationship to competencies and milestones within the context of surgical education. It may be of particular interest to surgeons and educators whose primary role is in teaching and training medical students and surgical residents. The objectives are to:

  • Review the available literature about EPAs including theoretical grounding and relationships to other educational frameworks including competencies and milestones
  • Describe current uses of EPAs and how they are being integrated into medical education curricula
  • Examine some of the limitations to this approach and directions for further research and application of EPAs

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Create a Surgical Faculty Compensation Plan that Supports the Educational Mission
(Posted May 2017)
David A. Rogers, MD, MHPE, FACS, FAAP

This study is for anyone interested in developing a compensation program that supports the educational mission within a surgical unit and may be of particular interest to surgeons whose primary academic activity is education. The objectives are to:

  • Review the experience with systems that were designed to quantitate educational activities for the purpose of creating a compensation program
  • Describe some of the limitations of the existing scholarship on academic surgeons’ compensation programs
  • Offer some practical guidelines for developing this type of compensation program

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