American College Of Surgeons - Inspiring Quality: Highest Standards, Better Outcomes

RISE Archives

The Various Roles of Simulation throughout the Surgeon Lifecycle
(Posted January 2018)
Jennifer Perone, MD; Nicholas E. Anton, MS; and Aimee K. Gardner, PhD

The article is intended for those interested in learning more about the various uses of simulation for training and assessment throughout a surgeon’s career. This information may be of particular interest to simulation educators and researchers. The objectives are to:

  • Describe the various purposes of simulation for surgeon assessment and training
  • Provide resources and examples of how simulation has been used within each phase of a surgeon’s career
  • Discuss how simulation can is also used for surgeons in practice

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Pushing the Edges of the Box: Creating Focused Training within a General Surgery Residency
(Posted November 2017)
Kyla Terhune, MD, MBA, FACS, and John Mellinger, MD, FACS

This article is intended for program directors in surgery interested in knowing the available options to focus the terminal training of residents. It will help the reader understand the following:

  • Both the ACGME and ABS allow significant latitude for program directors to individualize rotations for residents, even without a specific application for flexibility.
  • When a specific flexibility application is needed.
  • The advantages to trainees, faculty, programs, and patients of individualizing rotations and setting trainees up to be “practice ready.

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The Language of Progressive Autonomy: Using the Zwisch Scale for More Than Just Assessment
(Posted October 2017)
Brian C. George MD, MAEd

This article is intended for those interested in learning more about a framework for teaching faculty how to grant more autonomy to residents. This may be of particular interest to program directors and surgical educators whose primary academic appointment relates to education. The objectives are to:

  • Describe a framework that allows faculty to grant increased levels of autonomy to residents in the operating room
  • Discuss the four levels of the Zwisch scale and the amount of guidance provided by faculty during each level
  • Specify how the Zwisch scale can be used in each of the three phases of the Briefing, Intraoperative Teaching and Debriefing (BID) Model

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Burnout in Surgery
(Posted August 2017)
Jacob Moalem, MD, FACS

This article is intended for surgeons and surgical trainees, and has broad applicability to anyone with an affiliation to medicine, with particular relevance to anyone who holds leadership or administrative responsibilities. The objectives are to:

  • Define burnout and outline risk factors and prevalence
  • Describe the impact and consequences of burnout
  • Suggest ways of preventing or mitigating its adverse effects

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Improving Autonomy in General Surgery Resident Training
(Posted July 2017)
Jason W. Kempenich, MD, FACS; and Paul J. Schenarts, MD, FACS

This article is for anyone with a stake in general surgery resident education including faculty, residents, policymakers, patients, and the general public. The objectives are to:

  • Understand the parties with a stake in general surgery resident education and the cooperation required to improve the quality of graduates
  • Understand the barriers to resident autonomy in general surgery education and the potential for solution

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Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) and Applications to Surgical Training
(Posted June 2017)
Brenessa Lindeman, MD, MEHP; Emil Petrusa, PhD; and Roy Phitayakorn, MD, FACS, MHPE

This synopsis covers Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) and their relationship to competencies and milestones within the context of surgical education. It may be of particular interest to surgeons and educators whose primary role is in teaching and training medical students and surgical residents. The objectives are to:

  • Review the available literature about EPAs including theoretical grounding and relationships to other educational frameworks including competencies and milestones
  • Describe current uses of EPAs and how they are being integrated into medical education curricula
  • Examine some of the limitations to this approach and directions for further research and application of EPAs

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Create a Surgical Faculty Compensation Plan that Supports the Educational Mission
(Posted May 2017)
David A. Rogers, MD, MHPE, FACS, FAAP

This study is for anyone interested in developing a compensation program that supports the educational mission within a surgical unit and may be of particular interest to surgeons whose primary academic activity is education. The objectives are to:

  • Review the experience with systems that were designed to quantitate educational activities for the purpose of creating a compensation program
  • Describe some of the limitations of the existing scholarship on academic surgeons’ compensation programs
  • Offer some practical guidelines for developing this type of compensation program

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