American College Of Surgeons - Inspiring Quality: Highest Standards, Better Outcomes


Common Exercises for Breast Surgery

Exercise Log

Treatment Summary and Survivorship Care Plan

Your Health Care Team Contact List


American Cancer Society

American College of Surgeons

American Physical Therapy Association

American Society of Breast Surgeons

American Society of Plastic Surgeons

Breast Cancer Research Foundation



Cancer Hope Network

Fox Chase Cancer Center

Living Beyond Breast Cancer


National Cancer Institute (NCI)

National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship (NCCS)

National Lymphedema Network


Stand Up to Cancer

Susan G. Komen for the Cure

Young Survival Coalition

Support Groups

American Psychosocial Oncology Society

FORCE: Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered

Young Survivors Coalition


  1. What is breast cancer? American Cancer Society. Updated September 18, 2019. Accessed June 22, 2020.
  2. U.S. breast cancer statistics. Updated June 25, 2020. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  3. Ask CancerCare: What is ductal carcinoma in situ? Accessed June 22, 2020.
  4. American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018. Accessed November 3, 2020.
  5. Hughes KS. DCIS does not need treatment…really? Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015;154(1):1-4. doi:10.1007/s10549-015-3606-x
  6. Caliskan M, Gatti G, Sosnovskikh I, et al. Paget’s disease of the breast: the experience of the European Institute of Oncology and review of the literature. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;112(3):513-521. doi:10.1007/s10549-007-9880-5
  7. American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.; 2017
  8. Taylor LJ, Steiman J, Schumacher JR, Wilke LG, Greenberg CC, Neuman HB. Surgical management of lobular carcinoma in situ: analysis of the National Cancer Database. Ann Surg Oncol. 2018;25(8):2229-2234. doi:10.1245/s10434-018-6495-5
  9. Treatment for LCIS. Updated September 9, 2016. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  10. Cummings MC, Simpson PT, Reid LE, et al. Metastatic progression of breast cancer: insights from 50 years of autopsies. J Pathol. 2014;232(1):23-31. doi:10.1002/path.4288
  11. Invasive locular carcinoma (ILC). Updated March 9, 2019. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  12. Male breast cancer. Updated January 27, 2020. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  13. Cancer staging. National Cancer Institute. March 9, 2015. Accessed June 16, 2020.
  14. Breast cancer stages. Updated May 4, 2020. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  15. Cancer stat facts: female breast cancer. National Cancer Institute. Accessed June 22, 2020.
  16. Breast cancer: stages. July 2020. Accessed November 3, 2020.
  17. Kurian AW, Lichtensztajn DY, Keegan TH, Nelson DO, Clarke CA, Gomez SL. Use of and mortality after bilateral mastectomy compared with other surgical treatments for breast cancer in California, 1998–2011. JAMA. 2014;312(9):902-914. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.10707
  18. Moran MS, Schnitt SJ, Giuliano AE, et al. Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology consensus guideline on margins for breast-conserving surgery with whole-breast irradiation in stages I and II invasive breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21(3):704-716. doi:10.1245/s10434-014-3481-4
  19. DiSipio T, Rye S, Newman B, Hayes S. Incidence of unilateral arm lymphoedema after breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(6):500-515. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70076-7
  20. Prosthetics: an alternative to reconstruction. Updated March 7, 2019. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  21. Breast self-exam. Updated October 24, 2019. Accessed June 22, 2020.
  22. Breast awareness and self-exam. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Accessed June 20, 2020.,self%2Dexam%20is%20very%20important.
  23. Sensitivity, specificity, and false negative rate for 1,682,504 screening mammography examinations from 2007-2013. Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). Updated March 23, 2017. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  24. Mammograms After Breast Cancer Surgery. American Cancer Society. Accessed October 3, 2019.
  25. Thigpen D, Kappler A, Brem R. The Role of Ultrasound in Screening Dense Breasts—A Review of the Literature and Practical Solutions for Implementation. Diagnostics (Basel). 2018;8(1):20.
  26. Ultrasound – breast. 2019. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  27. Breast MRI for screening. Updated September 8, 2016. Accessed June 22, 2020.
  28. Oeffinger KC, Fontham ET, Etzioni R, et al. Breast Cancer Screening for Women at Average Risk: 2015 Guideline Update from the American Cancer Society. JAMA. 2015;314(15):1599-614. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.12783. Erratum in: JAMA. 2016 Apr 5;315(13):1406. PMID: 26501536; PMCID: PMC4831582
  29. Genetics. Updated September 11, 2020. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  30. BRCA-related cancer: risk assessment, genetic counseling, and genetic testing. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Published August 20, 2019. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  31. Hornor MA, Duane TM, Ehlers AP, et al. American College of Surgeons’ guidelines for the perioperative management of antithrombotic medication.  J Am Coll Surg. 2018;227(5):521-536.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.08.183
  32. The American Society of Breast Surgeons. Consensus guideline on venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis for patients undergoing breast operations. Accessed. June 18, 2020. -VTE-Prophylaxis-for-Patients-Undergoing-Breast-Operations.pdf
  33. Exercises after breast cancer Surgery. American Cancer Society. Revised September 18, 2019. Accessed July 14, 2020.
  34. Reducing lymphedema risk before surgery. Updated March 26, 2014. Accessed July 15, 2020.
  35. Miller CL, Specht MC, Skolny MN, et al. Risk of lymphedema after mastectomy – potential benefit of applying ACOSOG Z0011 protocol to mastectomy patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014;144(1):71-77. doi:10.1007/s10549-014-2856-3
  36. Practice guidelines for preoperative fasting and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration: application to healthy patients undergoing elective procedures. an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists task force on preoperative fasting and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. Anesthesiology.  2017;126:376-393.
  37. Juhl AA, Christiansen P, Damsgaard TE. Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment: a questionnaire-based study on the prevalence, associated treatment variables, and pain type. J Breast Cancer. 2016;19(4):447-454. doi:10.4048/jbc.2016.19.4.447
  38. Johannsen M, Christensen S, Zachariae R, Jensen AB. Socio-demographic, treatment-related, and health behavioral predictors of persistent pain 15 months and 7-9 years after surgery: a nationwide prospective study of women treated for primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015;152(3):645-58. doi: 10.1007/s10549-015-3497-x. Epub 2015 Jul 19. PMID: 26189085.
  39. Wolin KY, Schwartz AL, Matthews CE, Courneya KS, Schmitz KH. Implementing the exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. J Support Oncol. 2012;10(5):171-177. doi:10.1016/j.suponc.2012.02.001
  40. Surgery risks. Updated February 21, 2020. Accessed February 21, 2020.
  41. Possible problems after breast conserving surgery. Cancer Research UK. Accessed June 25, 2020.
  42. Local treatments for ILC: surgery and radiation therapy. Updated August 16, 2014. Accessed June 20, 2020.
  43. Straub JM, New J, Hamilton CD, Lominska C, Shnayder Y, Thomas SM. Radiation-induced fibrosis: mechanisms and implications for therapy. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015;141(11):1985-1994. doi:10.1007/s00432-015-1974-6
  44. Cancer treatment tables. Accessed August 8, 2018.
  45. FDA clears wider use of cooling cap to reduce hair loss during chemotherapy. National Cancer Institute. Published July 21, 2017. Accessed August 27, 2020.
  46. Acupuncture. Updated September 19, 2018. Accessed August 28, 2020.
  47. Hsieh FC, Miao NF, Tseng IJ, et al. Effect of home-based music intervention versus ambient music on breast cancer survivors in the community: a feasibility study in Taiwan. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2019;28(4):e13064. doi:10.1111/ecc.13064
  48. Recurrent breast cancer. Accessed January 29, 2020.
  49. Kneece J, Breast Cancer Treatment Handbook: Understanding the Disease, Treatments, Emotions, and Recovery from Breast Cancer. 8th Ed. Educare Publishing; 2017.
  50. When is radiation appropriate? Updated March 28, 2020. Accessed June 24, 2020.