There are no hard-and-fast rules to tell you when consultation (or second
opinion) is needed, but before you agree to an operation, you should discuss
the following questions with your surgeon:
- What are the indications for the operation?
- What, if any, alternative forms of treatment are available?
- What will be the likely result if you don't have the operation?
- What are the risks?
- How is the operation expected to improve your health or quality of
- Are there likely to be residual effects from the operation?
If, after discussing these questions with your surgeon, you feel confident
that a surgical procedure is the best treatment for your condition, you
probably don't need a second opinion. If, however, you have doubts about
whether the operation should be performed, or if the doctor recommending
the operation is not a qualified surgeon, you may want to seek consultation.
Consultation has always been a part of good medical practice, and a
competent physician should not be insulted if you decide to get further
advice. If you do want a second opinion, here are some things to remember:
1. Seek Qualified Advice
A consultation is not worth much unless it is given by someone with
the knowledge of and expertise in treating your condition. Always seek
consultation from a surgeon who is a qualified surgical specialist. A good
way to judge a surgeon's qualifications is to find out if he or she is
certified by a surgical board that is approved by the American Board of
Medical Specialties. By choosing a consultant who is board certified in
the appropriate surgical specialty, you know that she has completed
years of residency training and practice in her specialty and has demonstrated
her competence by successfully completing a rigorous examination.
And, if the surgeon is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons
(F.A.C.S.), you will know that he has passed a thorough evaluation
of both professional competence and ethical fitness. Fellows are board-certified
surgeons, or, in unusual circumstances, have met other standards comparable
to those of board certification.
If you are unsure of a surgeon's qualifications, contact your family
doctor, your local or state medical society, the hospital where the surgeon
practices, or the surgical department of the nearest medical school. They
should be able to tell you if your surgeon is board certified and/or a
Fellow of the American College of Surgeons.
2. The Decision Is Yours
Remember, a second opinion is not necessarily better than a first opinion
and, whether there is agreement or disagreement, the final decision will
be yours. It's a decision that should be made with all the facts, so don't
hesitate to discuss with your surgeon any questions or concerns you may
Surgery by Surgeons
A fully trained surgeon is a physician who, after medical school, has
gone through years of training in an accredited residency program to learn
the specialized skills of a surgeon. One good sign of a surgeon's competence
is certification by a national surgical board approved by the American
Board of Medical Specialties. All board-certified surgeons have satisfactorily
completed an approved residency training program and have passed a rigorous
The letters F.A.C.S. (Fellow of the American College of Surgeons) after
a surgeon's name are a further indication of a physician's qualifications.
Surgeons who become Fellows of the College have passed a comprehensive
evaluation of their surgical training and skills; they also have demonstrated
their commitment to high standards of ethical conduct. This evaluation
is conducted according to national standards that were established to ensure
that patients receive the best possible surgical care.
Prepared as a public service by the American College of Surgeons.
American College of Surgeons
Office of Public Information
633 N. Saint Clair St.
Chicago, IL 60611
If you are considering an operation, you may have further questions
in these topic areas:
Who should do your operation?
Giving your informed consent