American College Of Surgeons - Inspiring Quality: Highest Standards, Better Outcomes

Checklist References

Nutrition Checklist

Screening for Malnutrition

  • Mueller C, Compher C, Ellen DM, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N) Board of Directors. ASPEN Clinical Guidelines: Nutrition screening, assessment, and intervention in adults. JPEN. 2011;35(1):16-24.

Risk stratification with Albumin

  • Hennessey DB, Burke JP, Ni-Dhonochu T, Shields C, Winter DC, Mealy K. Preoperative hypoalbuminemia is an independent risk factor for the development of surgical site infection following gastrointestinal surgery: A multi-institutional study. Ann Surg. 2010; 252(2):325-329.
  • Gibbs J, Cull W, Henderson W, Daley J, Hur K, Khuri SF. Preoperative serum albumin level as a predictor of operative mortality and morbidity: Results from the National VA Surgical Risk Study. Arch Surg. 1999; 134:36-42.

Benefits of Immunonutrition

  • Drover JW, Dhaliwal R, Weitzel L, Wischmeyer PE, Ochoa JB, Heyland DK. Perioperative use of arginine-supplemented diets: A systemic review of the evidence. J Am Coll Surg. 2011;212(3):385-399.
  • Marimuthu K, Varadhan KK, Ljungqvist O, Lobo DN. A meta-analysis of the effect of combinations of immune modulating nutrients on outcome in patients undergoing major open gastrointestinal surgery. Ann Surg. 2012; 255(6):1060-1068.

Blood Sugar Control Checklist

  • Joshi GP, Chung F, Vann MA, et al. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia consensus statement on perioperative blood glucose management in diabetic patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. Anesth Analg. 2010;111(6):1378-1387.

Medication Checklist

Bleeding Risks

  • Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Spencer FA, et al. Perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy: Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141 (2): e326S-e350S.


  • Kwon S, Thompson R, Florence M, et al. β-blocker continuation after noncardiac surgery: A report from the surgical care and outcomes assessment program. Arch Surg. 2012;147(5):467-473.

Aspirin Use

  • Gerstein NS, Schulan PM, Gerstein WH, et al. Should more patients continue aspiring therapy perioperatively?: Clinical impact of aspirin withdrawal syndrome. Ann Surg. 2012;255(5):811-819.

Herbal Supplements

  • Qato DM, Alexander GC, Conti RM, Johnson M, Schumm P, Lindau ST. Use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements among older adults in the United States. JAMA. 2008;300(24):2867-2878.

Smoking Cessation Checklist

Smoking and Increased Postoperative Risks

Smoking and Spine Surgery

  • Pearson A, Lurie J, Tosteson T, et al. Who should have surgery for an intervertebral disc herniation? Comparative effectiveness evidence from the spine patient outcomes research trial. Spine. 2012;37(2):140-149.
  • Pearson A, Lurie J, Tosteson T, Zhao W, Abdu W, Weinstein JN. Who should have surgery for spinal stenosis? Treatment effect predictors in SPORT. Spine. 2012;37(21):1791-1802.
  • Sandén B, Försth P, Michaëlsson K. Smokers show less improvement than nonsmokers two years after surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis: a study of 4555 patients from the Swedish spine register. Spine. 2011;36(13):1059-1064.

Safety of Smoking in the Preoperative Setting

  • Wong J, Lam DP, Abrishami A, Chan MTV, Chung F. Short-term preoperative smoking cessation and postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Anesth, 2011;59(3):268-279.
  • Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.

Preoperative Smoking Cessation Programs Reduce Post-Operative Complications

  • Lindström D, Azodi OS, Wladis A, et al. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: A randomized trial. Ann Surgery. 2008;248(5):739-745.
  • Møller AM, Villebro N, Pedersen T, Tønnesen H. Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: A randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9301):114-117.


  • SCOAP Collaborative, Writing Group for the SCOAP Collaborative, Kwon S, Florence M, et al. Creating a learning healthcare system in surgery: Washington State’s Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) at 5 years. Surgery. 2012;151(2):146-52.