This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and Policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and SURGERY. The American College of Surgeons is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™
The American College of Surgeons designates this Journal-Based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™.
Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
In accordance with ACCME regulations, the American College of Surgeons, as the accredited provider of this journal CME, must ensure that anyone in a position to control the content of the educational activity has disclosed all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. The editor and author(s) of this article were required to complete disclosures and any reported conflicts have been managed to our satisfaction. However, if you perceive a bias within the article, please advise us of the circumstances on the evaluation form. The requirement for disclosure is not intended to imply any impropriety of such relationships, but simply to identify such relationships through full disclosure, and to allow readers to form their own judgments regarding the material.
Disclosure of Significant Relationships with Relevant Commercial Companies/Organizations:
Peter Angelos, MD, PhD, FACS, has no significant relationships to disclose.
Jason D. Keune, MD, has no significant relationships to disclose.
Ira J. Kodner, MD, FASCRS, FACS, has no significant relationships to disclose.
Vinaya K. Puppala, MD, has no significant relationships to disclose.
Anji E. Wall, MD, PhD,. has no significant relationships to disclose.