American College Of Surgeons - Inspiring Quality: Highest Standards, Better Outcomes

Journal Publications from Surgery Workforce Policy Program

Researcher note: This list includes either DOI numbers or URLs. To find articles via DOI, visit Enter the DOI in the search box and it will link to the article. For The American Surgeon, a DOI could not be found and the URLs were too long to paste, so tinyurl was used.

Ricketts TC, Belsky DW. Medicare costs and surgeon supply in hospital service areas. Ann Surg. 2012 Mar;255(3):474-477. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e31822f2021.

Neuwahl S, Fraher E, Pillsbury H 3rd, Weissler MC, Ricketts T, Gaul K. Trends in the otolaryngology workforce in the U.S. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2012 Mar;97(3);30-34.

Neuwahl S, Thompson K, Fraher E, Ricketts T. HPRI data tracks. Urology workforce trends. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2012 Jan;97(1);46-49.

Ortiz-Pujols SM, Thompson K, Sheldon GF, Fraher E, Ricketts T, Cairns BA. Burn care: Are there sufficient providers and facilities? Bull Am Coll Surg. 2011 Nov;96(11):33-37.

Ricketts T, Neuwahl S, Thompson K. Geographic distribution of general surgeons: comparisons across time and specialties. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2011 Sep;96(9):38-41.

Wright DB, Scarborough JE. Characterizing and fostering charity care in the surgeon workforce. Ann Surg. 2011 Jul;254(1):169-173. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e31821970e9.

Poley ST, Walker EK, Lyons JC, Newkirk VR, Thompson K. North Carolina surgical workforce trends. N C Med J. 2011 May-Jun;72(3):249-251.

Ricketts T, Thompson K, Neuwahl S, McGee V. Developing an index of surgical underservice. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2011 Jul;95(7):45-47. 

Sheldon GF. The evolving surgeon shortage in the health reform era. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011 Jul;15(7):1104-1111.

Ricketts, TC. The health care workforce: will it be ready as the boomers age? A review of how we can know (or not know) the answer. Annu Rev Pub Health. 2011;32:417-430. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031210-101227.

Charles AG, Walker EG, Poley ST, Sheldon GF, Ricketts TC, Meyer AA. Increasing the number of trainees in general surgery: is there capacity? Acad Med. 2011 May;86(5):599-604. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318212eb17.

Fraher EP, Poley ST, Sheldon GF, Ricketts TC, Thompson KW. The ACS HPRI: shaping surgical workforce policy through evidence-based analyses. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2011 May;96(5):37-45.

Poley ST, Kasper EW, Lyons JC, Newkirk VR, Thompson K. North Carolina surgical workforce trends. North Carolina Medical Journal. May/June 2011; 72(3): 249-51. Available at:

Etzioni DA, Finlayson SR, Ricketts TR, Lynge DC, Dimick JB. Getting the science right on the surgeon workforce issue. Arch Surg. 2011 Apr;146(4):381-384. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.2011.64.

Poley S, Newkirk V, Thompson K, Ricketts T. Independent practice becoming increasingly rare among surgeons. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2011 Mar;96(3):40-41.

Charles A, Gaul K, Poley S. Surgical workforce in the American South. Am Surg. 2011 Feb;77(2):133-138.

Walker E, Poley S, Ricketts T. The aging surgeon population: replacement rates vary. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2010 Dec;95(12):27-30. 

Stitzenberg KB, Meropol NJ. Trends in centralization of cancer surgery. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Nov;17(11):2824-2831. doi:10.1245/s10434-010-1159-0

Nelligan C, Wright B, Scarborough J, Poley S, Walker E, Ricketts T. Charity care among surgeons: hours vary by specialty and practice type. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2010 Nov;95(11):40-41.

Sheldon GF. Access to care and the surgeon shortage. Ann Surg. 2010 Oct;252(4):582-590. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181f886b6.

Poley S, Ricketts T, Belsky D, Gaul K. Pediatric surgeons: subspecialists increase faster than generalists. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2010 Oct;95(10):35-38.

Ricketts TC. Surgery does not drive volume of physician services. Surgery News. September 2010;4.

Stitzenberg KB, Wong Y, Nielsen M, Egleston B, Uzzo R. Trends in radical prostatectomy: centralization, robotics, and access to urologic cancer care. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(15 suppl; abstr 6023). doi: 10.1002/cncr.26274.

Belsky D, Ricketts T, Poley S, Gaul K. Surgical deserts in the U.S.: counties without surgeons. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2010 Sep; 95(9):32-35. 

Sheldon GF. The surgeon shortage: constructive participation during health reform. J Am Coll Surg. 2010 Jun;210(6):887-894. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2010.03.031.

Ricketts TC. The migration of surgeons. Ann Surg. 2010 Feb;251(2):363-367. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181c9b55a.

Sheldon GF. Health care reform: are we missing the important issues? Ann Surg. 2010 Feb;251(2):201-202. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181cbc448.

Ricketts TC. Preparing the health services research workforce. Health Serv Res. 2009 Dec;44(6):2227-2241. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2009.01025.x

Pathman DE, Ricketts TC 3rd. Interdependence of general surgeons and primary care physicians in rural communities. Surg Clin North Am. 2009 Dec;89(6):1293-1302, vii-viii. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2009.07.009.

Ricketts T, King J, Fraher E. Productivity of general surgeons: age, gender and location effects. Cah Sociol Demogr Med. 2009 Oct;49(3):336-337.

Stitzenberg KB, Sigurdson ER, Egleston BL, Starkey RB, Meropol NJ. Centralization of cancer surgery: implications for patient access to optimal care. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct;27(28):4671-4678.  doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.20.1715.

Ricketts TC. How many physicians? How much does it matter? JAMA. 2009 Oct 21;302(15):1701-1702. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1517.

Poley S, Belsky D, Gaul K, Ricketts T, Fraher E, Sheldon G. Longitudinal trends in the U.S. surgical workforce, 1981-2006. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2009 Aug;94(8):27-31.

King J, Fraher EP, Ricketts TC, Charles A, Sheldon GF, Meyer AA. Characteristics of practice among rural and urban general surgeons in North Carolina. Ann Surg. 2009 Jun;249(6):1052-1060. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181a6cd57

Sheldon GF, Ricketts TC, Charles A, King J, Fraher EP, Meyer A. The global health workforce shortage: role of surgeons and other providers. Adv Surg. 2008;42:63-85.

Ricketts TC, Randolph R. The diffusion of physicians. Health Aff (Millwood). 2008 Sep-Oct;27(5):1409-1415. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.27.5.1409.

Ricketts TC. [Innovative approach to research and policy in health workforce]. Cah Social Demogr Med. 2008 Apr-Jun;48(2):266-269.

Ricketts TC, Holmes GM. Mortality and physician supply: does region hold the key to the paradox? Health Serv Res. 2007 Dec;42(6 Pt 1):2233-2251.

Sheldon GF. Surgical workforce since the 1975 study of surgical services in the United States: an update. Ann Surg. 2007 Oct;246(4):541-545. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181571ca1.

Sheldon GF. Workforce issues in general surgery. Am Surg. 2007 Feb;73(2):100-108.

Sheldon GF. Globalization and the health workforce shortage. Surgery. 2006 Sep;140(3):354-358. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2006.06.012.

Holmes GM, Slifkin RT, Randolph RK, Poley S. The effect of rural hospital closures on community economic health. Health Serv Res. 2006 Apr;41(2):467-485.

Stitzenberg K, Sheldon GF. Progressive specialization within general surgery: adding to the complexity of workforce planning. J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Dec;201(6):925-932. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2005.06.253.